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Differential diagnosis of neck swelling

1. Differential Diagnosis Of Swellings Of Head & Neck www.indiandentalacademy.com 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com 3. The method of differential diagnosis was first suggested in use by Emil Kraepelin www.indiandentalacademy.com 4 Neck lumps are a common presentation in the general population and have a wide range of potential differential diagnoses Investigation of a neck lump, following history and examination, if suspicious, will require ultrasound +/- fine needle aspiratio The differential diagnosis of a mass in the neck is broad, extensive, and includes both serious and benign etiologies. Accurate diagnosis of a neck mass is critical. It is helpful to consider the differential diagnosis in three broad categories: Congenital. Inflammatory Differential diagnosis: Lymph-node enlargement, buccal cellulitis, lymphomas, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, Sjögren syndrome. Treatment: Antibiotics Submandibular sialadenitis: swelling at the angle of the mandible and the neck

Neck swellings: differential diagnoses GPonlin

The differential diagnosis of a neck mass includes: Infectious lymphadenitis - most common cause of a neck mass. Some agents include: Viral Adenovirus Coxsackie Epstein... Viral Adenovirus Coxsackie Epstein Barr virus Influenza Parainfluenza Other respiratory viruses Adenovirus Coxsackie Epstein. Documents Similar To Differential Diagnosis of Neck Swellings. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Differential Diagnosis Pain Right Hypochondrium. Uploaded by. DrArish Mahmood. Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease. Uploaded by. Marwan M. Diseases of Veins. Uploaded by. getnus. CEREBROVASCULAR. Uploaded by. jayz-cee In other cases, the diagnosis is less clear. Lymphadenopathy may be the only clinical finding or one of several nonspecific findings, and the discovery of swollen lymph nodes will often raise the.. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators.

Evaluation of Neck Masses in Adults - American Family

Differential Diagnosis of Head and Neck Swellings and its management. M.D.S Department College of Dentistry King Saud University Head and Neck Swellings A number of masses may develop in the head and neck, and these may also be called swellings, growths, tumors, lumps, and bumps. While some head and neck masses are cancerous, many are not Fig. 1 Gross appearance of the swollen tongue Fig. 2 Horizontal sectioning of the tongue shows massive intramus- cular hemorrhage Fig. 3 A biting injury on the nail of the right thum Non-specific neck pain — neck pain that varies with different physical activities and with time, or is related to an awkward movement, poor posture, or overuse. For more information, see the CKS topic on Neck pain - non-specific. Psychogenic dystonia. See Table 2 for the differential diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy. Table 2 Background Cervical palpation very often identifies one or more neck mass in the pediatric patient. The differential diagnosis is extensive, but diagnosis is made often with history and physical alone. An understanding of surface anatomy, lymphatic drainage patterns in the neck, and head and neck embryology are extremely useful in diagnosis Extrapulmonary form of mycobacterium tuberculosis (cervical adenopathy) Multiple bilateral lymph nodes. Fixed, firm, non-tender, located typically in posterior triangle. Cystic masses. Soft, mobile, ballotable. Thyroglossal duct cyst: midline, adjacent to hyoid, rises with swallowing. Branchial cleft cyst: lateral, mandibular angle anterior to SCM

Clinical pathways for differential diagnoses do not exist so far, although it is known that early treatment is decisive for faster symptom relief and reduced expression of the swellings. Aim of the study was the creation of a clinical algorithm for identification of bradykinin-mediated angioedema Differential diagnosis of parotid swelling [7] Features Mumps Acute purulent sialadenitis Sialadenosis The differential diagnosis of a neck mass includes: Neck Swelling Types, definitions, Etiology, Clinical Features, Investigations, Differential Diagnosis and Treatment T. his is a heterogeneous group of lesions, presenting clinically as. View differential diagnosis of neck swelling (PPTminimizer).ppt from NUR HEALTH ASS at Riphah International University Islamabad Main Campus. Anterior trianglebounded by anterior borde

[Differential diagnosis of neck swelling due to suspected

Upper lateral neck swelling: rare but important differential diagnosis. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, 2013. Irfan Mohama Background: Differential diagnosis of cystic mass in the neck include thyroid cyst, thymic cyst, thyroglossal duct cyst, branchial cleft cyst, bronchogenic cyst, lymphangioma and parathyroid cyst (PC).Parathyroid cysts are rare and account for only 0.5% of all parathyroid pathologies. Case Report: A 30-year-old female with insidious onset anterior neck cystic swelling was diagnosed as benign. The differential diagnosis of the various types of enlarged lymphglands is described on page 513. b. THYROID SWELLINGS. These, which are the second commonest cause of swellings situated laterally in the neck, are fully described on page 788. Although not strictly a swelling in the neck, it should be mentioned here that the unobliterated. Differential Diagnosis of Head and Neck Swellings and it's management Head and Neck - Complex region . Numerous Lymph nodes are located in the Head & Neck region. Salivary glands. Thyroid gland, Parathyroid glands, Thymus gland etc., Enlargement of lymph nodes in the head and neck can also cause a swelling Neck swelling in children is a finding that elicits immediate parental concern and often prompts a visit to the physician. The finding of a neck mass invokes a response because it can be associated with malignancy. Malignancy, though part of the differential diagnosis, is a relatively uncommon cause of neck swelling by far

The overwhelming amount of possible diseases linked to a swelling in the neck makes it of utmost importance to follow a strict protocol for appropriate diagnosis making. or calcitonin can give further direction to the differential diagnosis of this adenocarcinoma. In case of doubt, serum CEA and calcitonin should be obtained to exclude a. Neck Swellings-Types, definitions, Etiology, Clinical Features, Investigations, Differential Diagnosis and Treatment This is a heterogeneous group of lesions, presenting clinically as fluctuant, soft or firm, lateral or midline neck swellings Swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck is a common symptom of many different types of viral and bacterial infections. Thyroid gland enlargement is a familiar cause of neck swelling in adults. In rare cases, neck swelling can be a result of cancer. In mild cases of neck swelling, treatment may not be required

(PDF) Anterior neck swelling: A differential diagnosi

The differential diagnosis for a palatal swelling is slightly different from swelling in other oral cavity locations, and once a palatal torus has been excluded (midline, bony hard protuberance with normal overlying mucosa) all other palatal swellings should be referred for assessment Understanding the differential diagnosis of neck and arm pain can lead to great confusion among many specialists. Making an accurate diagnosis is critical to getting an athlete back on the field of play. Complaints affecting this portion of the body are common in the offices of spine surgeons, sport medicine specialists, and hand surgeons alike

Neck swelling on one side causes. Any condition that causes an accumulation of fluid in the tissues and organs of the neck can result in unilateral swelling.These conditions can range in severity, so it is important to follow up with your healthcare provider on symptoms Differential diagnosis of head and neck swelling O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários An appreciation of the relative infrequency of infectious etiologies of adult neck masses should direct the clinician to carefully consider the differential diagnosis of an adult neck mass, search for signs or symptoms consistent with an infectious process, and recognize the high likelihood of a malignancy before prescribing an antibiotic 9 Pathology of the Neck. Pathology of the Suprahyoid Neck. Tonsillar Abscess. Differential Diagnosis • Severe and acute Epstein-Barr infection. • In unilateral cases: spread of infection from an odontogenic or parapharyngeal abscess. • More likely without clinical signs of infection: asymmetric lymphoid hyperplasia, tonsillar retention cyst (fluid collection without capsular.

This paper could be summarized as follows. Thymic cyst is a very rare differential diagnosis of cystic lateral neck swelling. According to the various literatures published, thymic cyst accounts for less than 0.5% of cystic neck swelling. Mediastinal extension is seen in 50% of cervical thymic cysts the neck are varied and diverse, the diagnostic thought process should be orderiy and inclusive so fhal a reasonable differential diagnosis can be established and prompt, effecfive treatment can be rendered. (Ouintessence Int 2000:31:637-641) Key words: oiassificafion, differentiai diagnosis, neck lesion, physical examination, tumo

Differential diagnosis of head and neck swellin

Rare complications of surgical emphysema andCase Example Parotid Lipoma-like Liposarcoma (Salivary

Cervical Thymic Cyst: A Rare Differential Diagnosis in Lateral Neck Swelling Vijendra Shenoy, 1,2 M. Panduranga Kamath, 1 Mahesh Chandra Hegde, 1 Raghavendra Rao Aroor, 1 and Vijetha V. Maller 3 Department of ENT-Head and Neck Surgery, Kasturba Medical College-Mangalore, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka , Indi Diagnostic approach. In a neck lesion in a child, ultrasound can usually determine whether a lesion is cystic or solid. Cyst In cystic lesions the diagnosis can frequently be made based on the location of the lesion (see next figure).; Lymph node If the lesion is solid the next step is to assess whether it is a lymph node or something else. Often more than one lymph node is enlarged Swollen glands in the neck are common signs of a cold. Glands can also swell due to bacterial infections that require antibiotics . Swollen glands caused by an infection may be tender to the touch. Post auricular swelling with mastoid bone involvement most commonly occurs as a cranial complication of chronic or acute suppurative otitis media. Aim of this study, to detect etiology of postauricular swelling with mastoid bone involvement. This is a retrospective study which was done on all patients whom underwent mastoidectomy for post auricular swelling with mastoid bone involved in El.

1. According to site Gingiva Redness • Plaque-induced gingivitis • Trauma • Odontogenic infections • Desquamative gingivitis - lichen planus - pemphigoid - pemphigus • Granulomatous disorders - Crohn's disease and other related conditions - orofacial granulomatosis - sarcoidosis • Medication - plasma cell gingivitis • Erythroplakia • Kaposi's sarcoma [ The swelling gradually progressed to the current size. The patient had no significant family medical and habit history. There was no extraoral swelling seen neck region, and the lymph nodes were nonpalpable. On intraoral examination, the unilateral swelling was extending from mandibular second molar ascending up to the ramus region

Neck Swellings The BM

The presence of skeletal muscle edema (increased high T2/STIR signal) on MRI carries an extremely broad differential. Potential diagnoses include: trauma. effects of direct injury or tear. denervation injury: denervation changes in muscles. early myositis ossificans X-ray of neck in lateral position; CT scan with contrast of the neck. Differential diagnosis of swollen uvula (pictures) Certain conditions may be confused with uvulitis because of its presentation. A detailed evaluation with appropriate investigations can confirm the diagnosis [7]

Facial swelling in the pediatric patient may have a wide variety of causes. Knowledge of the location and clinical characteristics of a lesion helps to formulate a differential diagnosis. Infection is the most common cause of facial swelling, and imaging is indicated if there is concern about an underlying abscess that might require drainage The differential diagnosis should include the following pathologies: laryngocele, lateral neck cyst infection, neck abscess, retropharyngeal abscess, soft tissue edema, aneurysm, submandibular gland swelling, and thyroid or parathyroid gland [1-7]. In this case, because our patient noticed the swelling after sneezing, a laryngocele was. Differential Diagnosis. Bone marrow edema is a nonspecific finding and may be the earliest manifestation of ON. In the femoral head, femoral condyles, and humeral head, there is an extensive differential diagnosis, which includes transient osteoporosis (especially in the lower extremity) as well as infection and neoplasm Differential diagnosis Thyroid lumps and swellings. Non-toxic (simple) goitre - non-functioning nodules. neck pain, fever and lethargy soon after an upper respiratory infection or a viral illness. Lymph nodes - swelling due to inflammation, infection or malignancy. Salivary gland swellings - tumours, calculi,.

Differential diagnosis of head and neck swellings

The most important differential diagnosis needs to be considered and ruled out is a retropharyngeal abscess. It is very important to differentiate between these two diseases due to dramatic differences in management - retropharyngeal abscess is a life-threatening emergency while calcific tendinitis is a self-limiting condition Facial swelling differential diagnosis A 28-year-old female asked: Severe facial pain for 4 mos, diagnosis of sinus probs & toothache. currently have severe facial swelling. could this be trigeminal neuralgia Lymphadenopathy Applied - Lymphoma. This case applies the differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy. The most abnormal finding on examination was non-tender, left supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. The duration of symptoms and lack of tenderness is concerning for malignancy, and the left supraclavicular location suggests a thoracic or intra. The preoperative diagnosis may be improved by the awareness of the fact that the pilomatrixoma is a common and benign skin tumour of the head and neck region. Dental surgeons should consider it as one of the differential diagnosis in superficial head and neck swelling with calcification

Neck Lumps - Differential Diagnosis - Investigation

  1. Diagnostic aspects of cervical lymphadenopathy in children in the developing world: a study of 1,877 surgical specimens. Pediatr Surg Int. 2003 Jun. 19 (4):240-4. [Medline]. Miller DR. Hematologic malignancies: leukemia and lymphoma (Differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy)
  2. The diagnosis and management of facial pain below the eye can be very different dependant on whether the patient visits a dentist or medical practitioner. A structure for accurate diagnosis is proposed beginning with a very careful history. The commonest acute causes of pain are dental and these are well managed by dentists
  3. An elevated SU (>8.0mg/dL) may support the diagnosis of a gout flare but is not itself diagnostic. Approach to Joint Pain: 3. Certain key historical elements can help narrow the differential diagnosis. Inflammation: Definition: Presence of erythema, warmth, swelling, pain with passive ROM, morning stiffness suggests inflammatory cause (arthritis
  4. Upper Lateral Neck Swelling: Rare but Important Differential Diagnosis Neck Swelling that Splays the Arteries—Irfan Mohamad and Nik Fariza Husna Nik Hassan Images in Medicine A 20-year-old Malay female with no medical illness presented with a painless right upper neck swelling of few weeks duration. It was slowly increasing in size
  5. Probable diagnosis of thyroid swelling with laryngocele as a differential was made. FNAC of nodular swelling was suggestive of nodular colloid goitre. CECT neck implied solitary thyroid nodule. The patient was taken for surgery to remove the thyroid nodule but surprisingly left apical lung hernia was diagnosed along with the thyroid nodule
  6. e the differential diagnosis
  7. A differential diagnosis of your symptoms and risk factors finds the likely cause of swelling at front of neck. Arriving at a Correct Diagnosis The Analyst™ is our online diagnosis tool that learns all about you through a straightforward process of multi-level questioning, providing diagnosis at the end

A Patient with a Painless Neck Swelling. Sadia Ali, Sadia Ali. 1. Department of Infectious Diseases, West Virginia University. , West Virginia. Reprints or correspondence: Dr. Sadia Ali, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, P.O.Box 9163, Morgantown, WV 26506-9163 ( Sali@hsc.wvu.edu ). Search for other works by this author on Conclusions The common differential diagnosis in Western patients with lower limb swelling is secondary lymphedema, venous disease, lipedema, and adverse reaction to ipsilateral limb surgery. Lymphedema can be confirmed by a lymphoscintigram, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or ultrasound

5. Mohamad I, Nik Hassan NF. Upper lateral neck swelling: rare but important differential diagnosis. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2013 Aug;42(8):422-423. 6. brgman , Afifi AK, Miyauchi e rA r. Ilustrated encyclopedia of human anatomic variation. 1999:1-35. 7. De Garis CF, black IH, riemenschneider eA. Pattern How to cite this article: Abhijit K, Ajay G, Gautam A. Myoparasitism: A Rare Differential in a Case of Parotid Swelling.J Head Neck Spine Surg. 2021; 4(3): 555639. DOI: 10.19080/JHNSS.2021.04.555639 0033 Journal of Head Neck & Spine Surger

Churchills Pocketbook of Differential Diagnosis. Farida Yildirim. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 14 Full PDFs related to this paper. READ PAPER. Churchills Pocketbook of Differential Diagnosis. Download. Churchills Pocketbook of Differential Diagnosis The differential diagnosis of 'molluscum contagiosum' and 'sebaceous cyst' with the diagnosis more in favour of the former. Read More This may be due to degenerative arthritis, or secondary to a subluxion injury, due to sudden flexure of the neck some time in the distant past Article Details 1. Key Clinical Messages. Thyroglossal duct cysts are the most frequently occurring congenital cervical anomalies. This case illustrates the need to consider thyroglossal duct cysts in the differential diagnosis when working up a post-traumatic sinus of neck, especially with discharge and without obvious neck swelling Our case is unusual in terms of the sudden progressive swelling compromising the airway despite of no previous underlying thyroid gland disease or clear trigger of the hemorrhage. Hence, any sudden progressive neck swelling should promote hemorrhagic cyst as a differential diagnosis taking into consideration the necessity of securing the airway

cluded in the differential diagnosis of neck masses extending to the floor of the mouth. Both lesions are most commonly seen in childhood, with 90% of lymphangiomas of the head and neck diagnosed by the age of 2 years.5 They demonstrate a variety of clinical Fig. 1. Extraoral examination revealed a left submandibular swelling with a diameter. Work-up, Differential Diagnosis, and Treatment Mary Lloyd Ireland, M.D. Associate Professor University of Kentucky Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine Lexington, Kentucky www.MaryLloydIreland.co Since the swelling was in the anterior neck region, we excluded lateral neck swellings like branchial cysts, solitary lymphatic cysts, and carotid body tumors. The absence of any signs and symptoms of infection excluded cervical lymphadenitis and tubercular or non-tubercular lymphadenopathy A mildly overweight 8-year-old Hispanic female in rural Colorado is brought to her primary care provider's office with right neck pain and right-sided neck swelling of a day's duration. The patient's mother also stated that her daughter had a maximum temperature (T-max) of 102°F that started that morning. The patient denied any sore throat, rash, headache, rhinorrhea, cough, nasal.

The age and gender of the patient, location, size, onset, duration and progression of the swelling gives important clues in making the differential diagnosis from the clinical point of view. Neck sonography was first introduced in 1966-1967 [1] The Differential Diagnosis This presentation fits within a diagnostic territory of an autoimmune disorder, a systemic inflammatory disorder, malignancy, and an infection. Rash, and Swelling. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is an unusual cause of lymphadenopathy and fever. Pregnancy associated with KFD presents as a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians. The diagnosis can be confirmed with invasive biopsies or non-invasive gene analysis. We report a case of a 24-year-old woman at 18 weeks' gestation with a neck lump and histologically confirmed KFD Differentiated thyroid cancer is a rare disease in children and adolescents and manifests exclusively in the form of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We present a rare case of PTC who presented initially with lung symptoms and miliary nodules on chest X-ray. This case emphasises the important differential of miliary mottling of the lungs

Mumps presenting with unilateral, synchronous parotid and

UpToDat

  1. e the cause and find an effective treatment for leg edema of unclear etiology. We were unable to find existing practice guidelines that address this problem in a comprehensive manner. This article provides clinically oriented recommendations for the management of leg edema in adults. We searched on-line resources, textbooks, and.
  2. Cervical lymphadenopathy is a sign or a symptom, not a diagnosis. The causes are varied, and may be inflammatory, degenerative, or neoplastic. [2] In adults, healthy lymph nodes can be palpable (able to be felt), in the axilla, neck and groin. [3
  3. ate. Careful history and physical exa
  4. Which lymph nodes are swollen depends on the cause and the body parts involved. Swollen lymph nodes that appear suddenly and are painful are usually due to injury or infection. Slow, painless swelling may be due to cancer or a tumor. Table 1. Clues to the Diagnosis of Swollen Lymph Nodes (Lymphadenopathy
  5. Symptoms and signs. Signs and symptoms of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema vary based on the cause, but it is often associated with swelling of the neck and chest pain, and may also involve sore throat, neck pain, difficulty swallowing, wheezing and difficulty breathing. Chest X-rays may show air in the mediastinum, the middle of the chest cavity. A significant case of subcutaneous emphysema.
  6. Diagnosis and treatment for swollen posterior cervical lymph node Having swollen lymph nodes may not always be cause for concern, but in some cases it's worth having a medical professional look.
  7. ation are important factors in the evaluation

Neck Swelling Types, definitions, Etiology, CP , DD

  1. Differential diagnosis of oral enlargements in children Catherine M. Flaitz, DDS, MS Gary C. Coleman, DDS, MS Abstract The purpose of this article is to review soft tissue and bony enlargements that typically occur in the oral and perioral region of children. In order to organize these le
  2. The online presentation specifies key points of each disease and discusses the differential diagnosis of these lesions. Acknowledgment: The authors thank Silvia Álvarez Díaz and Rafael González Gutiérrez for contributing some of the illustrations used in the online presentation
  3. ent in the nodes closest to the site of infection. 3. Common causes of lymphadenopathy in children include: Upper respiratory infections: Including the cold and influenza

What is the Differential Diagnosis of a Neck Mass

  1. diagnosis. The preoperative diagnosis may be improved by the awareness of the fact that the pilomatrixoma is a common and benign skin tumour of the head and neck region. Dental surgeons should consider it as one of the differential diagnosis in superficial head and neck swelling with calcification. copyright
  2. After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Know the differential diagnosis of the pediatric neck mass. 2. Understand how to conduct an evaluation of the pediatric neck mass. The broad differential diagnosis of pediatric neck masses typically fits into two main categories: congenital and acquired
  3. Condition . Findings on History that affect likelihood of this diagnosis . Findings on Physical Exam that affect likelihood of this diagnosis . Findings on Imaging that affect likelihood of this diagnosis . Experience teaches . Impingement (tendinopathy, bursitis, PASTA) Age usually 35-55; if younger and really looks like impingement, think instabilit
  4. DIFFERENTIAL DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF SCROTAL DIAGNOSIS OF SCROTAL SWELLINGS SWELLINGS Kasela Jak Kasela Jak & & Chingumbe Wams Chingumbe Wams 16/08/06 16/08/06 CANCER OF THE TESTIS CANCER OF THE TESTIS INTRODUCTION • Rare tumor:- 1-2% of all cancers in men. • 99% of testicular tumors are malignant
Neck Lymph Nodes | Radiology Key

Differential Diagnosis of Neck Swellings - Scrib

Treatment. Mild edema usually goes away on its own, particularly if you help things along by raising the affected limb higher than your heart. More-severe edema may be treated with drugs that help your body expel excess fluid in the form of urine (diuretics). One of the most common diuretics is furosemide (Lasix) OralMedicine 396 DentalUpdate July/August 2011 Anne M Hegarty Differential Diagnosis for Orofacial Pain, Including Sinusitis, TMD, Trigeminal Neuralgia Abstract: Correct diagnosis is the key to managing facial pain of non-dental origin.Acute and chronic facial pain must be differentiate Marrow edema of femoral head and neck; MRI Commonly seen among women in 3rd trimester of pregnancy and middle aged men. Bone scan shows increased uptake in the femoral head. Differential diagnosis of pain around the hip joint. Arthroscopy. 24 (12): 1407-21

Sudden massive neck swelling due to hemorrhage of a

Lymphadenopathy: Differential Diagnosis and Evaluation

  1. Discussion. Clinically, in most cases, cervical thymic lesions present as a unilateral asymptomatic neck mass, commonly on the left side of the neck, and 75% of patients present before 20 years of age. Conclusion. Thymic cyst should be included as differential diagnosis of cystic neck masses
  2. slow growing neck masses. Pre- operative diagnosis is difficult as most patients do not have neurological deficit. Hence, other common neck swellings may be considered as differential diagnoses ahead of schwannomas. More common neck swellings are branchial cyst, paraganglioma, lymphoma and metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy
  3. ation, lymph nodes in the neck area greater than 1 cm are described as enlarged, except for the jugulodigastric nodes; here, 1.5 cm is accepted as normal size.
  4. ↑Szuba A, Rockson SG. Lymphedema: classification, diagnosis and therapy. Vasc Med 1998; 3:145-56 ↑ Cormier JN, Askew RL, Mungovan KS, et al. Lymphedema beyond breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer-related secondary lymphedema. Cancer 2010; 116:5138-49 ↑ 3.0 3.1 International Society of Lymphology. The diagnosis and treatment of peripheral lymphedema: 2013.
  5. Differential Diagnosis of Head and Neck Swelling - YouTub
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